5.2 Socio-economic losses

There are three factors of destructions from tsunamis: inundation, wave impact on structures, and erosion. Agricultural areas are fully flooded and destroyed beyond recovery for many years to come. Strong, tsunami-induced currents lead to the erosion of foundations and the collapse of bridges and seawalls, infrastructures. Flotation and drag forces move houses and overturn railroad cars. Considerable damage is caused by the resultant floating debris, including boats and cars that become dangerous projectiles that may crash into buildings, break power lines, and may start fires. Fires from damaged ships in ports or from ruptured coastal oil storage tanks and refinery facilities can cause damage greater than that inflicted directly by the tsunami. Of increasing concern is the potential effect of tsunami draw down, when receding waters uncover cooling water intakes of nuclear power plants. For 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami total destruction figures are presented below:

Destruction figures for 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami (source: “Tsunami Teacher”, www.unesco.org)