1. What is a volcanic eruption?

Volcanoes can be described as openings in the Earth crust, through which molten rock, ash, and gases are emitted.

Volcanoes can be active or inactive.

Active volcanoes can be broadly divided into two main types:

Explosive volcanoes which give place to large explosions which can partially destroy the volcano, high columns of rock materials (rock debris, rock blocks, ash, steam, etc.) projected in the atmosphere and subsequently falling down along the sides of the volcano, as well as lava flows, mud and debris flows along the sides of the volcano, earthquakes, noxious gas emission.
Effusive Volcanoes which give to among other, slowly moving lava flows, little explosions, ground deformations, lava fountains, gas and steam emissions.

Source: United States Geological Survey (USGS)